For example, there are some contemporary liberal political philosophers who are more sympathetic to the idea of ascribing rights to groups and have defended difference-sensitive policies. In other words, it is a background of distinctions between things that individuals consider important or worthy and those things which are considered less valuable. Fourth, negative universalists are skeptical concerning the normative value of culture and about providing differentiated rights to individuals Festenstein, , pp. Obviously, groups are not, most of the time, identified only by being linguistically different, territorially concentrated or religiously distinct. The fact that a specific bookshelf is brown, black or blue is an accidental property—it does not change what the object is and it is indifferent to its definition. Most majority societies fail to treat animals with respect and do not usually protect the interests of non-human sentient animals. Nevertheless, she was refused emergency treatment on grounds of not being a member of the tribe; a refusal that later caused her death Shachar, a, pp. Second, multicultural policies are policies that aim at providing groups the means by which individuals can pursue their cultural differences.
The chapters gathered here present the state of the art in scholarship in the field, covering: First, they have the interest in not having gross suffering inflicted upon them Casal, ; Cochrane, Rather, they argue that difference-sensitive policies aim at correcting intergroup inequalities and disadvantages in the cultural market. This refers to the distinctions of worth that individuals make regarding objects of desire. In contemporary China, there are 56 officially recognized ethnic groups, and 55 of these groups are ethnic minorities who make up approximately 8. First, that difference-sensitive rights that aim to protect economic resources are temporary, while cultural rights are permanent. For instance, in the case of Quebec, communications in English can be restricted by the state in order to promote the French language. These self-understandings necessarily have to have meaning. This can mean funding individuals to pursue their goals or using positive discrimination to help them in a variety of ways. Each society or group would have its own legislation, that is, they would have jurisdictional independence Kukathas, b, p. The concerns with respect to children are especially with regards to physical and psychological abuse and lack of education. With respect to education, there are groups who wish to take their children out of school at an earlier age. There are cultural groups which have practices that interfere with the interests of non-human sentient animals and in terms of multiculturalism these policies may give cultural groups powers that may facilitate animal cruelty. His liberal egalitarian approach, in particular, has as core values neutrality, freedom and equality. Bearing this in mind, recognition is a vital human need because the relation between recognition and identity the way people understand who they are is relatively strong; hence, misrecognition or non-recognition may have a serious harmful effect on individuals In order to discuss the best way to achieve recognition in the public realm, Taylor draws a distinction between procedural and non-procedural forms of liberalism. However, having this general law would burden those groups for whom dressing in a certain manner that is, different from the one required by the company is a very important value. According to Kymlicka, in the context of contemporary liberal political philosophy, there have been two waves of writings on multiculturalism Kymlicka, a. Furthermore, they all place the same value on the practices of the group. Moreover, these characteristics are what differentiate members of that group from others and clearly exclude others Young, a, p. Special representation rights are designed to protect groups which have been systematically unrepresented and disadvantaged in the larger society. Thus, rather than speaking about women, one should speak about black women, or lesbian Muslim women. The symbolism, sign process or system of meaning underlying this action is what, according to the point of view of semiotics, culture is, and this is what should be studied. According to the rational choice view, the information available strongly affects behavior. Thus individuals act according to their self-interest, information and preferences. Okin has contended that most cultures in the world are patriarchal and gendered and, consequently, providing rights to groups may help with reinforcing oppressive gendered and patriarchal practices.
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