Mughal response[ edit ] In , the Mughal government of Bengal led by viceroy Shaista Khan moved to retake Chittagong from Portuguese and Arakanese control. It became the first European colonial enclave in Bengal. The nearby island of Sandwip was conquered in The Mughals expelled the Portuguese from Chittagong. However, after reaching Chittagong in early , the fleet found the city too strongly held and abandoned their attempt at capturing it. The port city was renamed as Islamabad.
The port city was renamed as Islamabad. It became the first European colonial enclave in Bengal. The cartaz system was introduced and required all ships in the area to purchase naval trading licenses from the Portuguese settlement. There were a number of rebellions against British rule, notably during the Indian rebellion of , when the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th companies of the 34th Bengal Infantry Regiment revolted and released all prisoners from the city's jail. The city remained under the possession of the Nawab of Bengal until when East India Company took complete control of the former Mughal province of Bengal. After the Battle of Imphal , the tide turned in favor of the Allied Forces. In a backlash, the rebels were suppressed by the Sylhet Light Infantry. The war had major negative impacts on the city, including the growth of refugees and the Great Famine of Economic growth increased due to an efficient system of land grants for clearing hinterlands for cultivation. They launched the Mughal conquest of Chittagong. The Mughals attacked the Arakanese from the jungle with a 6,strong army, which was further supported by Mughal naval ships blockading the Chittagong harbour. The Chittagong armoury raid by Bengali revolutionaries in was a major event in British India's anti-colonial history. The Mughals also contributed to the architecture of the area, including the building of Fort Ander and many mosques. Persians and other Iranic peoples have deeply affected the history of the Bengal Sultanate, with Persian being one of the main languages of the Muslim state, as well as also influencing the Chittagonian language and writing scripts. The Assam Bengal Railway connected the port city to its interior economic hinterland, which included the world's largest tea and jute producing regions, as well as one of the world's earliest petroleum industries. Mughal response[ edit ] In , the Mughal government of Bengal led by viceroy Shaista Khan moved to retake Chittagong from Portuguese and Arakanese control. It was a critical air, naval and military base for Allied Forces during the Burma Campaign against Japan. Shipbuilding swelled under Mughal rule and the Sultan of Turkey had many Ottoman warships built in Chittagong during this period. This altered geopolitical landscape allowed the Portuguese unhindered control of Chittagong for over a century. Chittagong was a major center of trade with British Burma. Chittagong was integrated into the prosperous greater Bengali economy, which also included Orissa and Bihar. The Mughals expelled the Portuguese from Chittagong. The nearby island of Sandwip was conquered in Mughal rule ushered a new era in the history of Chittagong territory to the southern bank of Kashyapnadi Kaladan river. Establishment of colonies[ edit ] Arab and Persian settlers[ edit ] During the 13th and 16th centuries, Arabs and Persians heavily colonized the port city of Chittagong, initially arriving for trade and to preach the word of Islam.
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