A qualitative study found that microassaults e. These stressors may relate directly to poor mental and physical health outcomes, and may also be associated with adverse health behaviors. Regarding current gender identity, participants identified as a man While much of the literature has focused on major discriminatinatory events, more recent work has begun to examine microaggressions that occur in daily life. Because of occasional item skipping, the analysis included only the subjects who answered all items. Such a measure would be useful in a providing more information about the unique challenges faced by this population, b identifying the ways in which racism and heterosexism may intersect for this population, c identifying the unique components of minority stress that may be associated with health and other psychosocial outcomes for this population, and d developing tailored intervention strategies to promote health and well-being among this population.
Analysis plan We used exploratory factor analysis to determine performance of items using a principal component analysis with a promax rotation Mplus. This scale included 19 items; participants could choose one of the following response items: Participants were highly educated; All focus groups and interviews included an open ended question regarding the specific stressors associated with being LGBT. While much of the literature has focused on major discriminatinatory events, more recent work has begun to examine microaggressions that occur in daily life. Minority stress can appear in a number of different forms. Such a measure would be useful in a providing more information about the unique challenges faced by this population, b identifying the ways in which racism and heterosexism may intersect for this population, c identifying the unique components of minority stress that may be associated with health and other psychosocial outcomes for this population, and d developing tailored intervention strategies to promote health and well-being among this population. Method Participants Between May, and March , a total of 1, individuals were recruited to participate in a web-based survey. Interpersonal exchanges involving microaggressions may not be perceived as discriminatory by perpetrators, who may believe their actions to be innocent or harmless and may not understand the potential impacts of these behaviors on recipients e. Overall, research on microaggressions holds promise for directing mental health interventions, both in terms of improving health and also increasing use and effectiveness of health services. Measures of psychosocial adjustment Participants also completed other measures of recent or current psychosocial adjustment in order to determine the validity of this measure. The questionnaire was followed by a listing of LGBT and mental health resources. All participants were included only once in the qualitative study, either one focus group or in one interview. For the 10 items in this scale, participants could choose one of the following response categories: In this approach, items were treated as ordered categorical ordinal. We also had 81 multiracial participants Stigmatization may influence identity development for multiple minority individuals, especially if they experience discrimination within their own social networks. Other items may have been associated with specific life domains, such as health care i. Data collection All focus groups and interviews lasted for two hours and were semistructured, with questions focusing on the nature and experience of outness, identity, minority stress, the impact of stressors, substance use, community, coping, and mental health outcomes. Announcements about the study were sent electronically to LGBT listservs, websites, groups, organizations, and clubs in all 50 states. Advertisements focused on this population e. Subsequent to data collection, we compared major themes found in focus groups and in-depth interviews to findings from previous qualitative and quantitative studies on LGBT-POC described above. Results from this study led to an initial set of survey questions we evaluated in Studies 2 and 3. Those with poor performance were dropped and new items were generated based on results of an EFA and qualitative input from survey participants. For example, Constantine and Sue found that Black doctoral students encountered situations in which White supervisors made stereotypic assumptions about Black supervisees e. After performing a 3-factor EFA, we removed eight items due to loading less than.
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